Data Model

How data is described and referenced in Fenl.

Fenl operates on typed values. Fenl's type system describes several different kinds of values.

Simple values such as the string "hello" or the integer 57 are scalar types.

Types may be combined to create records. Record fields may be scalar or record types.

Scalars

Scalar types include booleans, numbers, strings, timestamps, durations and calendar intervals.

Type

Examples

Description

bool

true, false

Booleans represent true or false

u8, u32, u64

0, 1, 10000

Unsigned integer numbers of a particular bit size.

i8, i32, i64

0, 1, -100, 10000, 0.0, -1.0

Signed integer numbers of a particular bit size.

f32, f64

0, 1, -100, 10000, 0.0, -1.0, -100837.631

Floating point numbers. When using a decimal a leading numeric character is required.

string

"hello", "hello \"john\""

Unicode strings. Strings are written with double-quotes. Double quotes may be escaped within the string.

timestamp_s, timestamp_ms, timestamp_us, timestamp_ns

1639595174 as timestamp_s

The point in time a given number of seconds, milliseconds, microseconds or nanoseconds after the Unix Epoch (00:00:00 UTC on January 1, 1970).

duration_s, duration_ms, duration_us, duration_ns

0 as duration_s, 1 as duration_ms, -100 as duration_us, 10000 as duration_ns

A given number of seconds, milliseconds, microseconds or nanoseconds.

interval_days, interval_months

0 as interval_days, 1 as interval_days, -100 as interval_months, 10000 as interavl_months

A calendrical interval.

Records

Records allow combining multiple different types into a single value. Records are unnamed - any two records with the same set of fields and value types are considered equal. Fields within a record may have different types. Field names must start with a letter.

Type

Examples

Description

{name: string, age: number}

{name: "john", age: 32}

A record is a composite type made up of 0 or (generally) more components. Each component is associated with a
field name.

Type Coercion

Fenl implicitly coerces numeric types when different kinds of numbers are combined. For example adding a 64-bit signed integer value to a 32-bit floating point value produces a 64-point floating point value.

Type Promotion Rules

Type coercion will never produce an integer overflow or reduction in numeric precision. Such conversions may be explicitly specified using as.

The coercion rules can be summarized with the following rules:

  1. Integers can be widened: i8 -> i16 -> i32 -> i64.
  2. Unsigned integers can be widened: u8 -> u16 -> u32 -> u64.
  3. Floating point numbers can be widened: f16 -> f32 -> f64.
  4. Unsigned integers can be promoted to the next wider integer u8 -> i16, u16 -> i32, u32 -> i64.
  5. All numbers may be converted to f64.
  6. Strings may be implicitly converted to timestamps by attempting to parse them as RFC3339 values. The timestamp will be null for strings that don't successfully parse.

Numeric Type Coercion Table

When two numbers are used, Fenl attempts to promote them to a compatible type as the smallest type that both types may be converted to.
The following table shows the result of this promotion for pairs of numeric types.

i8i16i32i64u8u16u32u64f16f32f64
i8i8i16i32i64i16i32i64f64f16f32f64
i16i16i16i32i64i16i32i64f64f16f32f64
i32i32i32i32i64i16i32i64f64f16f32f64
i64i64i64i64i64i64i64i64f64f16f32f64
u8i16i16i16i64u8u16u32u64f16f32f64
u16i32i32i32i64u16u16u32u64f16f32f64
u32i64i64i64i64u32u32u32u64f16f32f64
u64f64f64f64f64u64u64u64u64f16f32f64
f16f16f16f16f16f16f16f16f16f16f32f64
f32f32f32f32f32f32f32f32f32f32f32f64
f64f64f64f64f64f64f64f64f64f64f64f64

️ Coercion to Floating-Point

Note that when u64 is combined with a signed type the result is f64. This is the only case where an operation between integers produces a floating-point value.


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